Trends in incidence of COVID 19 based on performed Rapid Antigen Test
Piratheepkumar. R1, Vijitha. P2
1Lecturer, Unit of Siddha Medicine, Faculty of Applied Science, Trincomalee Campus, Eastern University Sri Lanka
2Senior Lecturer, Unit of Siddha Medicine, Faculty of Applied Science, Trincomalee Campus, Eastern University Sri Lanka
*Piratheepkumar. R, Lecturer, Unit of Siddha Medicine, Faculty of Applied Science, Trincomalee Campus,
Eastern University Sri Lanka
Figure 1: RAT positive male cases among the total male patients performed RAT with days
Figure 1 shows that the number of male patients got positive result in RAT among the total male patients who performed RAT on every day. According to that, 20.4% (n=131) of male obtained positive result among the total male population (n=426). Philip Goulder, professor of immunology at the University of Oxford stated that women’s immune response to the virus is stronger since they have two X chromosomes which is important when talk about the immune response against SARS-Cov-2. Because the protein by which viruses such as coronavirus are detected is fixed on the X chromosome. This is exactly looks like females have double protection compare to male. The present study also showed that large number of RAT positive cases were observed in males compare to females. Gender based lifestyle would have been another possibility for large number of males got positive in RATs. There are important behavioral differences between the sexes according to certain previous research findings (54).
Figure 2: RAT positive female cases among the total female patients performed RA
Figure 2 shows that the number of female patients got positive result in RAT among the total female patients who performed RAT on every day. According to that, 11.4% (n=73) of female obtained positive result among the total male population (n=216).
Figure 3: The pattern of total RAT positive cases before and after lockdown.
Figure 3 showed that the relations between the number of positive cases before and after the lockdown. The lockdown declared by the tenth day from the initial day when the data was taken for analysis. The red vertical line differentiates the period as two such as before and after the lockdown. Though there was no decline observed as soon as immediately considerable decline was observed after the 21 days of onset of lockdown. Staying at home, avoiding physical contacts, and avoiding exposure in crowded areas are the best way to prevent the spread of Covid – 19 (54). However the significant decline would be able to see after three weeks only from the date of lockdown since the incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 is 14-21 days. The continuous study should be conducted in order to prove it. However the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 transmission pathway from human to human is still not resolved, the common transmission of respiratory diseases is droplet sprinkling. In this type of spreading, a sick person is exposed to this microbe to people around him by coughing or sneezing. Only the way to prevent these kind of respiratory diseases might be prevent the people to make close contact (54) (55). Approximately 214 countries reported the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases (56). Countries including Sri Lanka have taken very serious constraints such as announced vacation for schools, allowed the employers to work from home and etc. to slow down the COVID 19 outbreak. The lockdown days differ by countries. Countries have set the days when the lockdown started and ended according to the COVID-19 effect on their public. Some countries have extended the lockdown by many days due to COVID-19 continues its influence intensely on the public (57) (58).
Figure 4: Incidence of COVI 19 by age group
Figure 4 showed that the incidence of Covid-19 and age group. Accordingly large number was observed (34.89%) between the age group of 31-40 years in both sexes. The age group of 21-30 and 41-50 years also were shared the almost same percentage (17.13% & 17.75). A study provides evidence that the growing COVID-19 epidemics in the US in 2020 have been driven by adults aged 20 to 49 and, in particular, adults aged 35 to 49, before and after school reopening (59). However many researches pointed out that adults over the age of 60 years are more susceptible to infection since their immune system gradually loses its resiliency.
Figure 5: The age group and RAT positive male cases among the total positive cases
Figure 6: Age group and RAT positive female cases
Figure 5 & 6 showed that the relations between the positive number of male & female patients and the age group of total patients. According to that the large number of positive male patients observed among the age group of 41-50 years. Almost same number of patients was observed in the age group of 21-30 and 31-40. The least number of positive cases (0.7% and 0.9%) observed almost in 0-10 and 81-90 years. When considering the females, large number of positive female patients observed among the age group of 31-40 years. In USA Ministry of Health has reported 444 921 COVID-19 cases and 15 756 deaths as of August 31. For men, most reported cases were persons aged 30–39 years (22.7%), followed by 20–29 year-olds (20.1%) and 40–49 year-olds (17.1%). Most reported deaths were seniors, especially 70–79 year-olds (29.5%), followed by those aged 80 years and older (29.2%), and 60–69 year-olds (22.8%). Also found a similar pattern for women, except that most deaths were reported among women aged 80 years and older (44.4%) (60).
Figure 7: Age group and the positive cases
Table 1: Relations between the age group, sex, and RAT results
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